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How I structure my React /TS applications (2021)

· 5 min read
Djamaile Rahamat

(code is hosted at:

(last years post:

Last year, I created a post on how I structure my ReactJS projects. Now that it is summer vacation again, I shook the structure up a bit. But honestly there are few changes, because in the end React changed little (which is a good thing). So, in this post I will highlight what I changed/added.

Lets first start with a picture of the whole folder structure!

Folder structure

Now lets discuss the changes :)

📖 Api#

In the API folder, I only now have a generic request function and what I added was react-query. If you are not familiar with react-query, it is a library for fetching server state. React-query comes with a lot of power like caching, data synchronisation, etc.

In this project, I have kept react-query pretty simple by only adding a defaultQueryFn, what looks like this:

import axios, { Method, AxiosResponse } from 'axios';
const api = axios.create({  // baseURL: process.env.REACT_APP_HOST_BACKEND,  baseURL: '',});
const request = <T>(  method: Method,  url: string,  params: any,): Promise<AxiosResponse<T>> => {  return (    api.request <    T >    {      method,      url,      params,    }  );};
// Define a default query function that will receive the query keyexport const defaultQueryFn = async ({ queryKey }: any): Promise<unknown> => {  const data = await request(queryKey[0], queryKey[1], queryKey[2]);  return data;};

As you can see, the defaultQueryFn is calling the request function. Now we can add this to our QueryClient and in our Home view we can call the useQuery functionality like this:

import React from 'react';import '../../styles/home.css';import { useQuery } from 'react-query';import { Header } from '../../components';
const Home: React.FC = () => {  const { data, error, isFetching } = useQuery(['GET', '/character', {}]);
  if (isFetching) return <p>Is loading...</p>;
  if (error) return <p>${error}</p>;
  return (    <div className="App">      <Header />    </div>  );};
export default Home;

I am still experimenting with react-query and see how I can use it better. But this is how I have been using it for now.

🧪 Tests/Cypress#

Yes, the infamous test folder. I actually ended up deleting it! I still have tests but I put them directly into the views/[view] folder.

Test code in component

I have to admit that I am not using Jest as much anymore. I have switched over to using Cypress. Cypress is a tool for end-to-end tests and I have been liking it so far. So, in cypress/integration/404_page.ts you can see I have a spec test that tests if the user can go back to the home page if the user has reached to 404 page.

describe('404 page', function () {  it('should give the option to return to home', function () {    cy.visit('/does-not-exists');    cy.contains('Return to Home');    cy.get('a').click();    cy.contains('Learn React', { timeout: 10000 });  });});

🐳 Docker#

I have added also Dockerfiles to my default repo. I have two separate two Dockerfiles, one for development and one for production.

FROM node:15-alpine AS builder
COPY . .
RUN yarn install
RUN yarn build
FROM nginx:stable-alpine
WORKDIR /usr/share/nginx/html
RUN rm -rf *
COPY --from=builder /app/build .
ENTRYPOINT ["nginx", "-g", "daemon off;"

To build a image use:

$ docker build -t djam97/react-boilerplate-2021:prod -f docker/ .

☸️ Kubernetes#

I use Kubernetes daily so that's why I added also some k8s manifests. They are pretty bare bone, but they get the job done and are easily extensible.

apiVersion: apps/v1kind: Deploymentmetadata:  name: react-boiler-plate  labels:    app: react-boiler-platespec:  replicas: 1  selector:    matchLabels:      app: react-boiler-plate  template:    metadata:      labels:        app: react-boiler-plate    spec:      containers:        - name: react-boiler-plate          image: djam97/react-boilerplate-2021:prod          imagePullPolicy: Never          ports:            - containerPort: 3000---apiVersion: v1kind: Servicemetadata:  name: react-boiler-plate-servicespec:  selector:    app: react-boiler-plate  ports:    - protocol: TCP      port: 3000      targetPort: 3000

To apply the manifests use:

$ kubectl apply -f k8s/

😺 Github workflow#

I have also added a Github action that deploys your React app to Github pages. This is great for initial testing or for when your site is not going to have live on it's own server.

name: Deploy site
on:  push:    branches: [main]
jobs:  build:    runs-on: ubuntu-latest    continue-on-error: true    strategy:      matrix:        node-version: [14.x]    steps:      - uses: actions/checkout@v2      - name: Setup Node        uses: actions/setup-node@v1        with:          node-version: '14.x'      - name: Get yarn cache        id: yarn-cache        run: echo "::set-output name=dir::$(yarn cache dir)"      - name: Cache dependencies        uses: actions/cache@v1        with:          path: ${{ steps.yarn-cache.outputs.dir }}          key: ${{ runner.os }}-yarn-${{ hashFiles('**/yarn.lock') }}          restore-keys: |            ${{ runner.os }}-yarn-      - name: Yarn installation        run: yarn install && CI='' yarn build      - name: Deploy        uses: peaceiris/actions-gh-pages@v3        with:          github_token: ${{ secrets.ACCESS_TOKEN }}          publish_dir: ./buil

If you also want to use it, there are some steps you need to take. First, you need to create a personal access token in GitHub and add it as a secret to your repo as ACCESS_TOKEN. Last, change the homepage in package.json

 - "homepage": "", + "homepage": "https://<your username>",

###🗄️ Extra files Besides the usual prettier, eslint, husky setup. I have also added @commitlint/config-conventional to make sure every commit complies with being a conventional commit. If you don't know what that is, you can read up on it here: